3RD CYCLE DEGREES: COMPETENCES AND RESEARCHCAREER (Background material)

Mirkka Ruotsalainen

Анотація


The Bologna Process started in 1999, aiming to achieve greater compatibility and comparability
and increase the international competitiveness of the European systems of higher education. In the
beginning, the Bologna Process focused only on the first two cycles of higher education. Thethird
cycle was introduced as part of the process in Berlin 2003, in the follow-up meeting of the European
Ministers in charge of higher education. Conscious of the need to promote closer links between
the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and the European Research Area (ERA), and of the
importance of research as an integral part of higher education across Europe, Ministers considered
it necessary to go beyond the present focus on two main cycles of higher education to include
the doctoral level as the third cycle in the Bologna Process

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